By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This file develops suggestions on radiation exposures taking place in house actions. Radiation probability estimates for carcinogenesis, genetic results and nonstochastic results have been applied to improve probability comparisons on which occupation publicity limits are dependent. an immense results of this process is a differentiation in limits in response to age and intercourse. significant sections of the record deal with radiation environments in house, radiation publicity to body of workers, radiobiological beneficial properties of the distance radiation setting, and radiation safeguard criteria in area. The record additionally identifies wanted study appropriate to radiation exposures in area actions.
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Eight of 41 monkeys that have died and were exposed to 55 MeV protons (4 to 8 Gy, 400 to 800 rad surface dose) had glioblastomas. I t is not known whether or not this species, Macacca mulatta, is unusually susceptible to this tumor. , 1988) in persons exposed to x rays in childhood to doses as low as 1 Gy (100 rad) suggests that the results are not due to an unusual susceptibility of the monkeys. When data for different proton energies and all tumor types in both sexes are pooled, the dose response appears curvilinear and similar in its general form to low-LET radiation responses for tumor induction.
From Benton, 1986). and 225 k& pm-I in water, respectively,were used on the US missions. Meammments using cellulose nitrate and Lexan shown for the ASTP, Skylab and Apollo 17 d o n s Individual Skylab and ApolleSoyuz %t Project (ASrP)spectra are indicated and fall below the Apollo spectra A higher particle flux, excepting the more lightly ionizing trapped particles, is to be expected for lunar missions compared with the near-Earth 42 1 4. O PERSONNEL orbiting missions, k,Skylab and ASTF? Shielding by the Earth and the geomagnetic field causes a substantial decrease in galactic cosmic ray particle flu compared with that on lunar missions.
4 rem). 1rem) on the lunar surface. 4 rem). 8 Sv (80 rem) to the BFO. 3 Sv (530 rem) to the eye, and 6 Sv (600 rem) to the skin. it can be estimated that the daily HZE particle fluence within a spacecraft in transit between the earth and - ~ LET greater moon would be approximately 17 particles ~ r n with than 100 keV pm-l. The total fluence of such particles for the entire lunar mission would be about 800 HZE's ~ r n - ~ . 7 Mission to Mars A few rough estimates have been made on the dose equivalent that might be expected on a mission to Mars.