By Atsushi Kumanogoh
This publication provides the present options of semaphorin biology. within the early Nineteen Nineties, semaphorins have been initially pointed out as axon counsel cues that functionality in the course of neuronal improvement. notwithstanding, cumulative findings have clarified that they've various features in lots of physiological techniques, together with cardiogenesis, angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, retinal homeostasis, and immune legislation. also, they've been implicated within the pathogenesis of assorted human illnesses, together with tumorigenesis/tumor metastasis, neuroregenerative ailments, retinal degeneration, abnormal pulse/sudden dying, and immune issues. in keeping with this present examine historical past, the publication covers the fundamental cutting-edge findings for easy scientists in biochemistry, molecular biology, neuroscience, developmental biology, and structural biology, in addition to for physicians in neurology, cardiology, oncology, orthopedic surgical procedure, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, allergology, and rheumatology.
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Extra resources for Semaphorins: A Diversity of Emerging Physiological and Pathological Activities
1 Sema3A repels cutaneous sensory axons. (a) Axons of Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons (red) penetrate the spinal cord, extend to the ventral spinal cord, and form synapses with motor neurons. Cutaneous axons (blue) form synapses with dorsal spinal cord neurons. Sema3A (green) is expressed in the ventral spinal cord. (b) Schematic drawing of an in vitro dorsal root ganglia (DRG) culture experiment. Exogenous Sema3A (green) acts as a repulsion cue for nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced cutaneous axons (blue, left) but not NT3-induced proprioceptive axons (red, right) 3 Axon Guidance in the Spinal Cord 41 (Messersmith et al.
2009). Taken together, these results suggest that axon–axon interactions mediated by Sema3A and Nrp1 are critical for correct innervation of MOB glomeruli by ORNs. In addition to Sema3A, the secreted semaphorin Sema3F and its holoreceptor complex Nrp2/PlexA3 also play an essential, but distinct, role in topographic innervation of the MOB, here along the dorsal-ventral axis. Sema3F expression is limited to a subset of ORN axons that first arrive in the dorsal MOB; laterarriving ORNs do not express Sema3F at high levels but do express high levels of Nrp2 (Fig.
2). In addition to regulating the sublaminar targeting of IPL amacrine cells and RGC neurites, Sema6A also controls the arborization of horizontal cell neurites in the OPL and On, but not Off, SACs in the IPL. Horizontal cells express both Sema6A and PlexA4, and in Sema6A and PlexA4 mutants horizontal cell neurites exhibit a reduction in self-avoidance, leading to an increase in dendrite self-crossing and also increased fasciculation among horizontal cell neurites; this results in an overall reduction in horizontal cell neurite coverage in the OPL (Matsuoka et al.